English neuroscientists have been honoured with the world’s largest prize for brain research, which builds on research by Crocels.
Professor Graham Collingridge from the University of Bristol, Professor Tim Bliss of University College London, and Professor Richard Morris from the University of Edinburgh, are this year’s winners of The Brain Prize.
Crocels research has established since 2007 that the ‘neuroresponse plasticity’ of the brain is strongly related to behaviour. In 2011, Crocels researcher Jonathan Bishop defined the concept of ‘dopaminergic-serotonergic asynchronicity’ (SDA) to explain the interactions between NRP and the dopamine and serotonin neurotransmitters
The research by Professors Collingridge, Bliss and Morris build on this research by contributing the concept of ‘Long-Term Potentiation‘ (LTP), which looks at the impact of changes in NRP over the lifetime of a person affected by SDA.
The research by Professors Collingridge, Bliss and Morris extends Crocels research by focussing on the impact of memory on NRP, and these new findings in relation to memory led to the award. “Memory is at the heart of human experience,” chairman of the awards committee Sir Colin Blakemore said. “This year’s winners, through their ground-breaking research, have transformed our understanding of memory and learning, and the devastating effects of failing memory,” he concluded.
Worth one million Euros, The Brain Prize is awarded annually by the Grete Lundbeck European Brain Research Foundation in Denmark. It recognises one or more scientists who have distinguished themselves by an outstanding contribution to neuroscience.
Research, published in the Nature Neuroscience journal is thought to be the first ever to provide empirical evidence in support of Abraham Maslow’s hierarchy of needs.
Abraham Maslow’s research, published in the 1940s, studied the lives of accomplished people and found links between their behaviour and their lifestyles. This has now been confirmed as part of $30m (£20m) Human Connectome Project funded by the US National Institutes of Health, which was led by Stephen Smith of Oxford University.
The “connectomes” of 461 people as healthly as those studied by Abraham Maslow were collecting using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). They found that people who were “self-actualised” as high achievers were much healthier than those who were not.
Professor Stephen Smith said the findings are highly significant. “We’ve tried to see how we can relate what we see in the brain to the behavioural skills we can measure in different people,” he said. “In doing this, we hope to able to understand what goes on ‘under the bonnet’ of the brain.”
The study has its critics. Jonathan Bishop is from the Centre for Research into Online Communities and E-Learning Systems. “The study has the same flaws as Abraham Maslow’s studies, in that by focussing on so-called healthy people, it does not take account of the fact that many people labelled as mentally ill or disabled have their brain rewired through things such as trauma, which by reducing function in some abilities, increases function in others so as to drive them to be even more accomplished than those studied by Professor Stephen Smith,” he said.
Professor Stephen Smith’s research paper, “A positive-negative mode of population covariation links brain connectivity, demographics and behavior,” is published in the June 2015 edition of Nature Neuroscience. Jonathan Bishop’s research into the work of Abraham Maslow and “Serotonergic-Dopaminergic Asynchronicity” has been published in numerous sources, which are accessible on the Crocels Research website (research.crocels.com).
Cardiff University researchers have confirmed through studying brain tissue research by Crocels into the cause of mental health conditions, known as Serotonergic Dopaminergic Asynchronicity.
Researchers investigated brain tissue to confirm Crocels findings that traumatic memories can be changed so that trauma caused by them can be suppressed.
Dr Kerrie Thomas is a Senior Lecturer at Cardiff University and suggests that the confirmation of Crocels’s research is important. “That would lead to better control of memories, better use of memories and then pathological behaviours that are associated with the memories are lessened effectively,” she said.
Crocels has developed a system, called MEDIAT, which allows for traumatic memories in the brain to be displayed using anthropomorphic avatars so it is possible to systematically reprogram them. The research was presented at the 13th International Conference on Bioinformatics and Computational Biology three years ago.
Supporting Communication between People with Social Orientation Impairments Using Affective Computing Technologies: Rethinking the Autism Spectrum
A disability is a physical or mental impairment that has an adverse long-term impact on someone’s ability to carry out normal day-to-day activities. This is often thought of in terms of medical conditions with clearly defined symptoms. This chapter, however, argues that it is these symptoms that can be considered to be the impairments and that in the right environment can in fact be advantageous. Someone may be have a medical diagnosis but not be symptomatic due to medication, for instance. In this chapter, a set of symptoms is made up from a number of different scales, called Social-Behavioural Traits (SBTs), which are affected by a person’s Serotonergic-Dopamagenic Asynchronicity (SDA). This chapter discusses the role of affective computing in achieving harmony between people with various personality differences, including a model for explaining how technology can influence SDA and SBTs for the better.
Researchers at Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) and Massachusetts General Hospital have confirmed the findings of Crocels research linking ADHD to the prefrontal cortex.
The researchers confirmed the view of Crocels researcher, Jonathan Bishop, that the synchronicity of the prefrontal cortex in people with ADHD is different from those without the condition.
In their research, MIT confirmed that in those people who had outgrown ADHD, the synchronicity of their prefrontal cortex matched those without any apparent impairment. “Their brains now look like those of people who never had ADHD,” said Aaron Mattfeld, who is from MIT’s McGovern Institute for Brain Research.
Crocels’s Jonathan Bishop was excited by the findings. “At Crocels we have a long established finding that many disabilities labelled as social or cognitive impairments can often be put down to a suboptimal prefrontal cortex, causing a condition known as Serotonergic-Dopaminergic Asynchronicity, or SDA,” he said. “It is excellent that researchers at MIT have confirmed our findings that conditions like ADHD can be put down to poor synchronicity in the prefrontal cortex.”
The research by Crocels, entitled “The role of the prefrontal cortex in social orientation construction: A pilot study” was presented to the British Psychological Society’s Sustainable Well-Being Conference at Glyndwr University in Wrexham on 10 September 2011. It is accessible from Crocels’s website www.crocels.com by searching for the article’s title.
Reducing Corruption and Protecting Privacy in Emerging Economies: The Potential of Neuroeconomic Gamification and Western Media Regulation in Trust Building and Economic Growth
This chapter presents a location-based affective computing system, which can assist growing emerging markets by helping them reduce crime and increase public safety when used in conjunction with CCTV. Internet systems based on location-based services have increased in availability. Social platforms such as Twitter and Facebook now employ the information on user locations to provide context to their posts, and services such as Foursquare rely on people checking into different places, often to compete with their friends and others. Location-based information, when combined with other records, such as CCTV, promotes the opportunity for a better society. People normally abused by corrupt state officials for crimes they did not commit will now have alibis, shops will be able to more effectively build trust and procure new customers through “social proof,” and other forms of corruption will be tackled such as benefit fraud and tax evasion. Trust that everyone is paying his or her fair share can develop.
Towards a subjectively devised parametric user model for analysing and influencing behaviour online using neuroeconomics
Jonathan Bishop and Mark MH Goode
The quantitative-qualitative and subjectivity-objectivity debates plague research methods text-books, divide academic departments, and confuse post-modernists as to their existence. Those from the objective-quantitative camps will usually demand methods assume parametric principles from the start, such as homogeneity and normal distribution. Many of the subjective-qualitative camps will insist on looking and the individual meanings behind what someone is saying through their narratives and other discourses. The objective-quantitative camps on the other hand think anything that does not involve systematic acquisition and analysis or data cannot be valid. This chapter presents an approach to derive a parametric user model for understanding users that makes use of the premises and ideals of both these camps.
The empathic psychopathy in public life: Towards an understanding of ‘autism’ and ’empathism’ and ‘dopaminergic-serotonergic asynchronicity’
So-called ‘autism’ is a generally well understood condition yet it is claimed has no known cure, is best dealt with through “early intervention,” and to many is deserving of pity. This poster shows an aetiology of ‘autism’ and what can be called ’empathism’ as being caused by ‘dopaminergic-serotonergic asynchronicity’ that results in ‘autistic’ functions of the brain and ‘empathic’ ones being used unequally, with one being more predominant than the other. The poster argues that those who overuse the ‘empathic’ parts of the brain suffer from ‘empathism’ which impairs their relationship skills as much as social skills are impaired in people with ‘autism,’ who overuse the ‘autistic’ parts of their brain. The poster concludes by discussing how the researcher’s advancements in affective computing could be used to assist people with the symptoms of obsessive compulsive and narcissistic disorders that result from the mental dependence to an imbalance in serotonin and dopamine activity in the brain. The poster displays two diagrams linking these together, including the relationship between autism and empathism with regards to other so-called personality disorders.
Taming the Chatroom Bob: The role of brain-computer interfaces that manipulate prefrontal cortex optimization for increasing participation of victims of traumatic sex and other abuse online
Chatroom Bobs, which derived from the concept of ‘Uncle Bob’ being a name for a less than responsible family man, are characterised by being online community users driven by seeking out satisfaction for their ‘urgeances’ (or biological drives). Some of these are akin to the ‘office loser’ who tries to impress others but is despised, others have more ulterior motives for sexual satisfaction. This paper presents an intervention – called MEDIAT – which uses TAGTeach to retrain people who are sexually damaged by society and demonstrate impairment in how they interact with others. The paper presents an equation for measuring such ‘social orientation impairment’ as a reflection of its relationship to serotonergic and dopaminergic activity in the prefrontal cortex as a result of differences in ‘Neuro-response plasticity’. The paper concludes that by using MEDIAT to reverse dopaminergic-serotonergic asynchronicity caused by traumatic experience can lead to increased constructive participation in online and other environments.
The role of the prefrontal cortex in social orientation construction: A pilot study
The restoring and maximising of well-being in individuals disadvantaged or traumatised by physical, neurological, psychological or social causes therefore becomes a significant issue for all professionals whether in life, social or information sciences. This poster presents a review of the literature to establish a prima facie case for investigating the role of the prefrontal cortex in predetermining outcomes of the with medicalised social orientation impairments such as autism, Bipolar, Schizophrenia, ADHD, as well as problems relating to occupation health and substance misuse. The characteristics of the pre-frontal cortex are identified from a number of journals and then these terms cross references with those impairments. Anseries of equations are presented on how one might look at representing differences in the pre-frontal cortex by using a post-cognitivist psychology paradigm to represent the psycho-analytical concepts of ‘phantasies’ in a manner that allows for use in questionnaire, statistical analysis, and information system adaptation.
Summary of Conclusions
It is emotional dysfunction in the brain that causes most people to be autistic and not them having ‘autism’
Someone becomes autistic through a sub-optimal prefrontal cortex which affects working memory, among other factors.
A prefrontal cortex can become sub-optimal through lack of brain function to handle social and emotional stressors, such as might be caused by brain injuries such as hippocampal sclerosis
It can also become sub-optimal through traumatic abuse, including allergic reactions to vaccines, sex abuse, traumatic birth.
Finally, a sub-optimal pre-frontal cortex can come about through genetic mutations in it.
The degree of impairment in the prefrontal cortex can be measured through simple alpha and beta brain imaging tools