Trolling Is Not Just a Art. It Is an Science: The Role of Automated Affective Content Screening in Regulating Digital Media and Reducing Risk of Trauma

Trolling Is Not Just a Art. It Is an Science: The Role of Automated Affective Content Screening in Regulating Digital Media and Reducing Risk of Trauma

Jonathan Bishop

Abstract

This chapter seeks to explore the role media content ratings play in the age of “Internet trolling” and other electronic media issues like “sexting.” Using ANOVA to validate a four-factor approach to media ratings based on maturity, the chapter finds the ability of a person to withstand various media content, measured in “knol,” which is the brain’s capacity to process information, can be used to calculate media ratings. The study concludes it is feasible to have brain-computer interfaces for PCs and kiosks to test the maturity of vulnerable persons and recommend to parents/guardians or cinema managers whether or not to allow someone access to the content they wish to consume. This could mean that computer software could be programmed to automatically censor content that person is likely to be distressed or grossly offended by. Public policy issues relating to these supply-side interventions are discussed.

Reference

Jonathan Bishop (2014). Trolling Is Not Just a Art. It Is an Science: The Role of Automated Affective Content Screening in Regulating Digital Media and Reducing Risk of Trauma. In: Maria Manuela Cruz-Cunha & Irene Maria Portela (Eds.). Handbook of Research on
Digital Crime, Cyberspace Security, and Information Assurance. IGI Global, Hershey, PA. Available online at: http://resources.crocels.com/wp-content/uploads/sites/4/trolling-is-not-just-a-art-it-is-an-science.pdf

Reducing Corruption and Protecting Privacy in Emerging Economies: The Potential of Neuroeconomic Gamification and Western Media Regulation in Trust Building and Economic Growth

Reducing Corruption and Protecting Privacy in Emerging Economies: The Potential of Neuroeconomic Gamification and Western Media Regulation in Trust Building and Economic Growth

Jonathan Bishop

Abstract

This chapter presents a location-based affective computing system, which can assist growing emerging markets by helping them reduce crime and increase public safety when used in conjunction with CCTV. Internet systems based on location-based services have increased in availability. Social platforms such as Twitter and Facebook now employ the information on user locations to provide context to their posts, and services such as Foursquare rely on people checking into different places, often to compete with their friends and others. Location-based information, when combined with other records, such as CCTV, promotes the opportunity for a better society. People normally abused by corrupt state officials for crimes they did not commit will now have alibis, shops will be able to more effectively build trust and procure new customers through “social proof,” and other forms of corruption will be tackled such as benefit fraud and tax evasion. Trust that everyone is paying his or her fair share can develop.

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Reference

Jonathan Bishop (2013). Reducing Corruption and Protecting Privacy in Emerging Economies: The Potential of Neuroeconomic Gamification and Western Media Regulation in Trust Building and Economic Growth. In: Bryan Christiansenand Muslum Basilgan (Eds.) Economic Behavior, Game Theory, and Technology in Emerging Markets. IGI Global: Hershey, PA. (Pages 237-249). Available online at: http://resources.crocels.com/wp-content/uploads/sites/4/reducing-corruption-and-protecting-privact-in-emerging-economies-the-potential-of-neuroeonomic-gamification-and-western-media-regulation-in-trust-building-and-economic-growth.pdf

Towards a subjectively devised parametric user model for analysing and influencing behaviour online using neuroeconomics

Towards a subjectively devised parametric user model for analysing and influencing behaviour online using neuroeconomics

Jonathan Bishop and Mark MH Goode

Abstract

The quantitative-qualitative and subjectivity-objectivity debates plague research methods text-books, divide academic departments, and confuse post-modernists as to their existence. Those from the objective-quantitative camps will usually demand methods assume parametric principles from the start, such as homogeneity and normal distribution. Many of the subjective-qualitative camps will insist on looking and the individual meanings behind what someone is saying through their narratives and other discourses. The objective-quantitative camps on the other hand think anything that does not involve systematic acquisition and analysis or data cannot be valid. This chapter presents an approach to derive a parametric user model for understanding users that makes use of the premises and ideals of both these camps.

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Reference

Jonathan Bishop & Mark M.H. Goode (2014). ‘Towards a subjectively devised parametric user model for analysing and influencing behaviour online using neuroeconomics‘ In: J. Bishop (Ed). Gamification for Human Factors Integration: Social, Educational, and Psychological Issues. IGI Global: Hershey, PA. (Pages: 80-95). Available online at: http://resources.crocels.com/wp-content/uploads/sites/4/towards-a-subjective-parametric-user-model-for-analysing-and-inlfluencing-online-behaviour-using-neuroeconomics.pdf

Duke University Scientists confirm research findings

Researchers at Duke University studying neuroeconomics have found that feelings a person has about something and the value they put on it are calculated similarly in the prefrontal cortex. Their study confirms the findings of neuroeconomic and affective computing research conducted at Centre for Research into Online Communities and E-Learning Systems.

Scott Huettel, director of Duke’s Center for Interdisciplinary Decision Science, said scientists studying emotion and neuroeconomics had independently singled out this area of the brain in their research but neither group recognized that the other’s research was focused on it too.

Huettel’s research confirms that which was presented by a researcher at the Centre for Research into Online Communities and E-Learning Systems (Crocels) that was presented to a conference in Wales in 2011, following the filing of a patent in June 2010, which was awarded from April 2011.

In the research, ‘The role of the prefrontal cortex in social orientation construction: A pilot study,’ Crocels researcher Jonathan Bishop presented a neuroeconomic equation for calculating brain patterns in the prefrontal cortex.

Duke University student Amy Winecoff who led the study was buoyant about her research. “The neuroscience fits with your intuitive understanding,” she said. “Emotions appear to be relying on the same value system.

Bishop, who has been developing affective computing algorithms at Crocels for a number of years including as part of its patent said that Winecoff’s research adds nothing new to his prior art. “In 2012 I provided a definitive neuroeconomic model of how to calculate the activity in the prefrontal cortex to a WORLDCOMP conference, following the submission of our patent application” he said. “Researchers are way behind the times and I await the opportunity to see how much their publication in Journal of Neuroscience imitates what I did for Crocels.

In the Duke study, experimental subjects were first trained to do “reappraisal,” in which they could change their emotional response to a situation. “In reappraisal you reassess the meaning of an emotional stimulus, rather than trying to avoid the emotional stimulus or suppress your reaction to it,” Winecoff said. “We have kind of a skewed picture because this has only been done on the negative,” Winecoff said.

Bishop said his studies had no such limitations. “The research I did at Crocels considered a range of emotions identified by researchers at Cambridge University’s Autism Research Centre,” he said. “At Crocels we have been able to distinguish been those more positive emotions and the negative ones.
Our patent on this can in fact recognise at least 250,000 emotional states, of which around 40,000 can be calculated from the prefrontal cortex region alone.
“The research conducted by Duke University researchers on the prefrontal cortex region is primitive by comparison.

Huettel defended the research. “It’s not the case that you never want to reappraise a positive emotion,” he blasted. “But when buying a house or a car, it’s a good idea to dampen your infatuation down a bit.

Taming the Chatroom Bob: The role of brain-computer interfaces that manipulate prefrontal cortex optimization  for increasing participation of victims of traumatic sex and other abuse online

Taming the Chatroom Bob: The role of brain-computer interfaces that manipulate prefrontal cortex optimization  for increasing participation of victims of traumatic sex and other abuse online

Jonathan Bishop

Abstract

Chatroom Bobs, which derived from the concept of ‘Uncle Bob’ being a name for a less than responsible family man, are characterised by being online community users driven by seeking out satisfaction for their ‘urgeances’ (or biological drives). Some of these are akin to the ‘office loser’ who tries to impress others but is despised, others have more ulterior motives for sexual satisfaction. This paper presents an intervention – called MEDIAT – which uses TAGTeach to retrain people who are sexually damaged by society and demonstrate impairment in how they interact with others. The paper presents an equation for measuring such ‘social orientation impairment’ as a reflection of its relationship to serotonergic and dopaminergic activity in the prefrontal cortex as a result of differences in ‘Neuro-response plasticity’. The paper concludes that by using MEDIAT to reverse dopaminergic-serotonergic asynchronicity caused by traumatic experience can lead to increased constructive participation in online and other environments.

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Citation

Jonathan Bishop (2012). Taming the Chatroom Bob: The role of brain-computer interfaces that manipulate prefrontal cortex optimization for increasing participation of victims of traumatic sex and other abuse online. In: 13th International Conference on Bioinformatics and Computational Biology (BIOCOMP’12), 16-19 July 2012, USA. Available online at: http://resources.crocels.com/wp-content/uploads/sites/4/taming-the-chatroom-bob-the-role-of-brain-computer-interfaces-that-manipulate-prefrontal-cortex-optimization-for-increasing-participation-of-victims-of-traumatic-sex-and-other-abuse-online.pdf

The role of the prefrontal cortex in social orientation construction: A pilot study

The role of the prefrontal cortex in social orientation construction: A pilot study

Jonathan Bishop

Abstract

The restoring and maximising of well-being in individuals disadvantaged or traumatised by physical, neurological, psychological or social causes therefore becomes a significant issue for all professionals whether in life, social or information sciences. This poster presents a review of the literature to establish a prima facie case for investigating the role of the prefrontal cortex in predetermining outcomes of the with medicalised social orientation impairments such as autism, Bipolar, Schizophrenia, ADHD, as well as problems relating to occupation health and substance misuse. The characteristics of the pre-frontal cortex are identified from a number of journals and then these terms cross references with those impairments. Anseries of equations are presented on how one might look at representing differences in the pre-frontal cortex by using a post-cognitivist psychology paradigm to represent the psycho-analytical concepts of ‘phantasies’ in a manner that allows for use in questionnaire, statistical analysis, and information system adaptation.

Summary of Conclusions

  • It is emotional dysfunction in the brain that causes most people to be autistic and not them having ‘autism’
  • Someone becomes autistic through a sub-optimal prefrontal cortex which affects working memory, among other factors.
  • A prefrontal cortex can become sub-optimal through lack of brain function to handle social and emotional stressors, such as might be caused by brain injuries such as hippocampal sclerosis
  • It can also become sub-optimal through traumatic abuse, including allergic reactions to vaccines, sex abuse, traumatic birth.
  • Finally, a sub-optimal pre-frontal cortex can come about through genetic mutations in it.
  • The degree of impairment in the prefrontal cortex can be measured through simple alpha and beta brain imaging tools

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References

Jonathan Bishop (2011). The role of the prefrontal cortex in social orientation construction: A pilot study. Poster presented to the British Psychological Society’s Sustainable Well-Being Conference. Glyndwr University, Wrexham, 10 September 2011. Available online at: http://resources.crocels.com/wp-content/uploads/sites/4/the-role-of-the-prefrontal-cortex-in-social-orientation-construction.pdf