Managing sysop prerogative in Europe through fabris dualism: An agenda for reform of the European Union and Council of Europe into international organisations

Managing sysop prerogative in Europe through fabris dualism: An agenda for reform of the European Union and Council of Europe into international organisations

Jonathan Bishop

Abstract

The European Union referendum on the 23 June 2016 in the United Kingdom was reported as being the most significant plebiscite for over a generation. Its impacts may only become most apparent when the citizens of the United Kingdom start to demand the same rights that those in the countries that have remained a member of the European Union enjoy. This paper looks at the impact leaving the European Union will have for the United Kingdom in terms of ‘sysop prerogative’ – the right or lack of for information society service providers to do what they want when administering their websites as systems operators, or sysops. The paper argues that a lack of harmonization of laws across Europe will make enforcing sysop prerogative and indeed the very nature of it, more difficult. Even with the outcome of the EU referendum affecting only the United Kingdom, this paper argues that in order to secure a cyberspace free from crime that global cooperation is still needed, but that the European Union in its current form might not be the appropriate vehicle at all, with a combination of the United Nations, Nato and the Council of Europe being more suitable.

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Citation

Jonathan Bishop (2016). Managing sysop prerogative in Europe through fabris dualism: An agenda for reform of the European Union and Council of Europe into international organisations. The International Journal of Internet Trolling and Online Participation 3(1). Available online at: http://resources.crocels.com/wp-content/uploads/sites/4/managing-sysop-prerogative-in-europe-through-fabris-dualism.pdf

The Thin-Blue Web: Police Crime Records of Internet Trolling Show Chivalrous Attitudes That Can Be Resolved through Transfer of Powers

The Thin-Blue Web: Police Crime Records of Internet Trolling Show Chivalrous Attitudes That Can Be Resolved through Transfer of Powers

Jonathan Bishop

Abstract

This chapter using an empirical data-driven approach to investigate crime recording logs of South Wales Police relating to Internet trolling by and towards different sexes. The chapter finds more favourable attitudes towards women as victims in even the most trivial of cases. It finds male victims of trolling are only treated as victims when a form of unwanted face-to-face encounter is needed for action. The chapter shows transferring police powers to local authorities, can cut the cost of community policing by 50% across the board and eliminate sexist attitudes also. The chapter finds that the way social media platforms are exercising ‘sysop prerogative’ where they have no right to – such as not passing over account information on alleged defamers – puts a huge burden on police resources. Using local authorities, which have many of the same powers as the police and indeed more, can resolve problems without the need to criminalise offenders.

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Reference

Jonathan Bishop (2015). The Thin-Blue Web: Police Crime Records of Internet Trolling Show Chivalrous Attitudes That Can Be Resolved through Transfer of Powers. In P. Thomas, M. Srihari, & S. Kaur (Eds.) Handbook of Research on Cultural and Economic Impacts of the Information Society (pp. 67-91), IGI Global, Hershey, PA. Available online at: http://resources.crocels.com/wp-content/uploads/sites/4/the-thin-blue-web-police-crime-records-of-internet-trolling-show-chivalrous-attitudes-that-can-be-resolved-through-transfer-of-powers.pdf

Using “On-the-Fly Corpus Linguistics” to Systematically Derive Word Definitions Using Inductive Abstraction and Reductionist Correlation Analysis: Considering Seductive and Gratifying Properties of Computer Jargon

Using “On-the-Fly Corpus Linguistics” to Systematically Derive Word Definitions Using Inductive Abstraction and Reductionist Correlation Analysis: Considering Seductive and Gratifying Properties of Computer Jargon

Jonathan Bishop

Abstract

Computer jargon is something that can either unite people, or draw them apart. This chapter looks at definitions of the terms, ‘trolling,’ ‘flame,’ ‘flame-war’ and ‘lurking,’ as presented in specialist dictionaries, newspapers and through a survey of laypersons. The aim of the chapter was to see whether it was possible to objectively define terms using a quantitative analysis of qualitative data. The study finds that objectively determining a definition of a term requires a bigger dataset than is used for qualitative studies. It further notes that whilst there is a lot in common with expert definitions, the problem with drawing definitions from others is that whilst it might produce objective definitions they might not be accurate ones.

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Reference

Jonathan Bishop (2015). On-the-Fly Corpus Linguistics” to Systematically Derive Word Definitions Using Inductive Abstraction and Reductionist Correlation Analysis: Considering Seductive and Gratifying Properties of Computer Jargon. In: Jonathan Bishop (Ed.) Psychological and Social Implications Surrounding Internet and Gaming Addiction. IGI Global, Hershey, PA. Available online at: http://resources.crocels.com/wp-content/uploads/sites/4/using-on-the-fly-corpus-linguistics-to-systematically-derive-word-definitions-using-inductive-abstraction-and-reducationist-correlation-analysis.pdf

Private Lives or Public Property?: The impact of the Leveson Inquiry on Internet security and privacy in the European Union

Private Lives or Public Property?: The impact of the Leveson Inquiry on Internet security and privacy in the European Union

Jonathan Bishop

Abstract

The biggest story in the newspapers of 2012 probably made it into the Leveson Inquiry. This celebrity infested public inquiry intended to be the basis on which the press would be reformed to perform its role as information sources that scrutinise those with power more effectively. Leveson considered issues such as phone hacking and the distribution of private information online. The law is less clear since the publication of the Leveson Inquiry. This paper, therefore, explores the role that European Union law in the areas of property and privacy has on the way the media operates to affect security and privacy. This is achieved through exploring the data security and privacy issues surrounding the British Royal Family, where such issues came to the forefront following the exposure of explicit photographs of the Duke and Duchess of Cambridge, William Wales and Kate Middleton, and also those of Harry Wales.

Cyber-stalking or just plain talking?: Linguistic properties of rape-threat messages reflect underlying compulsive behaviours

Cyber-stalking or just plain talking?: Investigating the linguistic properties of rape-threat messages as compulsive behaviours

Mark Beech and Jonathan Bishop

Abstract

Rape call-out trolling, more commonly known as ‘rape-threat trolling,’ occurs when a person using a communication network sends a message relating to them ‘raping’ that person. Whilst this may disgust many people, this chapter finds that not all instances of rape call-out trolling is done to cause a person apprehension. The chapter finds that many Twitter users make rape threats to their friends in an affectionate way, and so appreciating the context of rape-threat messages is essential. The most notable targets of rape call-out trolling, Caroline Criado-Perez and Stella Creasy, were targeted following calling for less men to appear on British banknotes. These two findings have implications for public policy makers who are quite happy to see people go to jail for posting rape-threats when they were drunk, namely Isabella Sorley. The chapter concludes the context around rape-threat postings needs more consideration to determine what the core meanings are.

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Reference

Mark Beech and Jonathan Bishop (2015). Cyber-stalking or just plain talking?: Linguistic properties of rape-threat messages reflect underlying compulsive behaviours. In: Jonathan Bishop (Ed.) Psychological and Social Issues Surrounding Internet and Gaming Addiction. IGI Global: Hershey, PA. Available online at: http://resources.crocels.com/wp-content/uploads/sites/4/cyber-stalking-or-just-plain-talking-investigating-the-linguistic-priperities-of-rape-threat-messages-as-compulsive-behavours.pdf

Sticks and Stones Will Break my Euros: The Role of EU Law in Dealing with Cyber-Bullying through Sysop Prerogative

Sticks and Stones Will Break my Euros: The Role of EU Law in Dealing with Cyber-Bullying through Sysop Prerogative

Jonathan Bishop

Abstract

“Sticks and Stones” is a well-known adage that means that whatever nasty things people say, they will not physically harm one. This is not often the case, as bullying, especially via the Internet, can be quite harmful. There are few anti-bullying laws emanating from the European Union, which is a trading block of 28 member states that have pooled their sovereignty in order to have common laws and practices to boost trade and peace. However, the common legal rules that exist in the EU have implications for those who run websites, including relating to cyber-bullying. These people, known as systems operators, or sysops, can be limited in the powers they have and rules they make through “sysop prerogative.” Sysop prerogative means that a systems operator can do anything which has been permitted or not taken away by statute, or which they have not given away by contract. This chapter reviews how the different legal systems in Europe impact on sysops and change the way in which sysop prerogative can be exercised. This includes not just from the EU legal structure, but equally the European Convention on Human Rights (ECHR), which also has implications for sysops in the way they conduct their activities.

Reference

Jonathan Bishop (2014). Sticks and Stones Will Break my Euros: The Role of EU Law in Dealing with Cyber-Bullying through Sysop Prerogative. In: Maria Manuela Cruz-Cunha & Irene Maria Portela (Eds.) Handbook of Research on Digital Crime, Cyberspace Security, and Information Assurance. IGI Global, Hershey, PA. Available online at: http://www.jonathanbishop.com/Library/Documents/EN/docIGIPaper_SticksStones.pdf

Trolling Is Not Just a Art. It Is an Science: The Role of Automated Affective Content Screening in Regulating Digital Media and Reducing Risk of Trauma

Trolling Is Not Just a Art. It Is an Science: The Role of Automated Affective Content Screening in Regulating Digital Media and Reducing Risk of Trauma

Jonathan Bishop

Abstract

This chapter seeks to explore the role media content ratings play in the age of “Internet trolling” and other electronic media issues like “sexting.” Using ANOVA to validate a four-factor approach to media ratings based on maturity, the chapter finds the ability of a person to withstand various media content, measured in “knol,” which is the brain’s capacity to process information, can be used to calculate media ratings. The study concludes it is feasible to have brain-computer interfaces for PCs and kiosks to test the maturity of vulnerable persons and recommend to parents/guardians or cinema managers whether or not to allow someone access to the content they wish to consume. This could mean that computer software could be programmed to automatically censor content that person is likely to be distressed or grossly offended by. Public policy issues relating to these supply-side interventions are discussed.

Reference

Jonathan Bishop (2014). Trolling Is Not Just a Art. It Is an Science: The Role of Automated Affective Content Screening in Regulating Digital Media and Reducing Risk of Trauma. In: Maria Manuela Cruz-Cunha & Irene Maria Portela (Eds.). Handbook of Research on
Digital Crime, Cyberspace Security, and Information Assurance. IGI Global, Hershey, PA. Available online at: http://resources.crocels.com/wp-content/uploads/sites/4/trolling-is-not-just-a-art-it-is-an-science.pdf

‘U r Bias Love:’ Using ‘bleasure’ and ‘motif’ as forensic linguistic means to annotate Twitter and newsblog comments for the purpose of multimedia forensics

‘U r Bias Love:’ Using ‘bleasure’ and ‘motif’ as forensic linguistic means to annotate Twitter and newsblog comments for the purpose of multimedia forensics

Jonathan Bishop

Abstract

The mass adoption of social media has brought with it the most undesirable aspects of human nature, namely the need to abuse one’s fellow kind for sometimes difficult to understand reasons. There has been severe pressure on law enforcement agencies to respond to this Internet abuse, commonly called Internet trolling. Equally, there has been demands made of social media companies to better police the content on their platforms. There is also the option of civil action for those who have been targeted by the ‘trolls’ who post the abusive comments. This paper suggests understanding UK case law in relation to Internet trolling and cyber-harassment should be done through the prism of the French legal concepts of bleasure (i.e. blessure) and motif. The paper provides a framework for those involved in multimedia forensics to abstract information from identified abusive content (i.e. motifs) to determine whether it would be reasonable to say that such messages harmed a person (i.e. caused a bleasure). Using a corpus linguistics approach, the paper identifies abusive posts made against prominent women public figures on Twitter and newsblogs in the last three years, namely Sally Bercow, Caroline Criado-Perez, Esther McVay and Salma Yaqoob. The paper finds that it is possible to systematically abstract data from social media platforms that both show that an offence has happened (i.e. actus reus, motif), that a person has been harmed (i.e. malum reus, bleasure), and whether it has occurred, or is likely to occur, over a longer period of time (i.e. pertinax reus). This can be done using ‘interface cues’ in the form of authority cues and bandwagon cues, which need to rely on an effective corpus of key terms to be useful.

Reference

Jonathan Bishop (2014). ‘U r Bias Love:’ using ‘bleasure’ and ‘motif’ as forensic linguistic means to annotate Twitter and newsblog comments for the purpose of multimedia forensics. The 11th International Conference on Web Based Communities and Social Media 2014, Lisbon, Portugal, 17–19 July 2014. Available online at: http://resources.crocels.com/wp-content/uploads/sites/4/ur-bias-love-using-bleasure-and-motif-as-forensic-linguistic-means-to-annotate-twitter-and-newsblog-comments-for-the-purpose-of-multimedia-forensics.pdf

Using the concepts of ‘forensic linguistics,’ ‘bleasure’ and ‘motif’ to enhance multimedia forensic evidence collection

Using the concepts of ‘forensic linguistics,’ ‘bleasure’ and ‘motif’ to enhance multimedia forensic evidence collection

Jonathan Bishop

Abstract

Internet trolling has become more widely adopted as a term to describe a range of data misuse and Internet abuse offences. To date there has been no coherent means to interpret online postings for the purpose of forensic collating and reporting of evidence. This paper proposes to use the terms of bleasure and motif, used in French law, in order to classify Internet trolling postings according to the extent their have harmed people (i.e. malum reus) and the extent to which it can be proved such bleasures show actus reus through treating them as motifs as one would in French law. Through investigating the posting of sex-related trolling messages sent to and relating to women on YouTube the study proposes a framework for classifying these messages. These chauvinistic messages are often related to rape, so the paper aims to help crime investigators use multimedia forensics to more easy collect and use evidence in cases of Internet trolling.

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Reference

Jonathan Bishop (2014). Using the concepts of ‘forensic linguistics,’ ‘bleasure’ and ‘motif’ to enhance multimedia forensic evidence collection. The 2014 International Conference on Security and Management (SAM’14), Monte Carlo Resort , in Las Vegas, Nevada, USA. 21-24 July 2014. Available online at: http://resources.crocels.com/wp-content/uploads/sites/4/using-the-concepts-of-forensic-linguistics-bleasure-and-motif-to-enhance-multimedia-forensic-evidence-collection.pdf

YouTube if you want to – The lady’s not for blogging: Using ‘bleasures’ and ‘motifs’ to support multimedia forensic analyses of harassment by social media

YouTube if you want to – The lady’s not for blogging: Using ‘bleasures’ and ‘motifs’ to support multimedia forensic analyses of harassment by social media

Jonathan Bishop

Abstract

The year 2013 will be known in the Internet trolling community as the one where the dark sides of the phenomena were most present. Public figures like Caroline Criado-Perez were targeted with some of the most abusive comments, including threats of rape, many which might have seemed credible at the time. This presentation looks through some of the posts on Twitter and YouTube to find out why such verminous attacks were made. Though using the French legal concepts of Bleasure and Motif as part of a multimedia forensics approach the talk concludes that the most passionate and vile forms of Internet trolling arise out of a contempt trolls have for bias and hypocrisy. Caroline Criado-Perez was abused because she was a woman calling for more women on banknotes and therefore less men. Had she been a Black person calling for more Black people on banknotes she would have received racist comments and not sexist ones – probably from the same people. By looking at other women, namely Salma Yaqoob, Sally Bercow and Esther McVey, the talk concludes that the best way to not be trolled is to advocate rights for a group one does not belong to. It equally concludes that the concepts of Bleasure and Motif can be helping in providing evidence of trolling and the effect it has on others.

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References

Jonathan Bishop (2014). YouTube if you want to – The lady’s not for blogging: Using ‘bleasures’ and ‘motifs’ to support multimedia forensic analyses of harassment by social media. Presentation to the Oxford Cyber Harassment Symposium. 27-28 March 2014. St Edmund’s Hall, Oxford University. Available online at: http://resources.crocels.com/wp-content/uploads/sites/4/youtube-if-you-want-to-the-ladys-not-for-blogging.pdf