Ecological Cognition: A New Dynamic for Human-Computer Interaction

Ecological Cognition: A New Dynamic for Human-Computer Interaction

Jonathan Bishop

Abstract

Human computer interaction (HCI) is the study of the interaction between actors and their computer environments. It has long been argued that psychology has an important role to play in HCI, but that detailing its role has been difficult. In the 20th century there were two domination approaches to designing human-computer systems, that being the cognitive approach, which was heavily based on the information processing model and the behaviourist approach, which was based on the stimuli-response theory that behaviour can be reinforced through rewards, which was particularly evident in e-learning systems. Human-Computer Interaction could benefit from a new approach based on the understanding that actors act as a result of experiencing an impetus, such as an affordance, developing the intent, experiencing forces, experiencing a neuro-response, such as a desire, and making a judgement by resolving dissonance. The design and management of virtual communities can be enhanced through realising that actors who do not contribute to these communities may have a desire to do so, but will have to resolve their dissonance to experience intemperance as opposed to temperance. Human-computer systems that attempt to seduce the user could be improved through developers understanding that actors will continue using a system if they believe their goals will be met and the affordances offered by the system are consonant with their existing goals, plans, values, beliefs and interests. E-learning systems could be made more persuasive through proposing beliefs that may be contradictory to the existing beliefs of an actor, but are consonant with their goals. Artificially intelligent agents could be made more lifelike, by experiencing desires and experiencing and resolving dissonance. Such agents could be useful in both e-learning system and systems that attempt to improve the health of actors. Computer-supported cognitive therapy systems could be improved by identifying and eliminating dissonance that an actor has experienced but not resolved.

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References

Jonathan Bishop (2007) Ecological Cognition: A New Dynamic for Human-Computer Interaction. In: B. Wallace, A. Ross, J. Davies & T. Anderson (eds.). The Mind, the Body and the World: Psychology after Cognitivism. Imprint Academic: Exeter, pp. 327-345. Available online at: http://resources.crocels.com/wp-content/uploads/sites/4/ecological-cognition-a-new-dynamic-for-human-computer-interaciton.pdf

Increasing Participation in Online Communities: A framework for human-computer interaction

Increasing participation in online communities: A framework for human-computer interaction

Jonathan Bishop

Abstract

Online communities are becoming an accepted part of the lives of Internet users, although participation in these communities is dependent on the types of people that form them. Some of the online community’s members do not participate, people referred to as lurkers, whereas others who have been in the community for a long time, referred to as elders, participate regularly and support others. Understanding what drives these individuals and how they chose whether or not to participate will lead to online communities that thrive. This paper proposes a conceptual framework to describe what drives such individuals to carry out actions such as posting messages and adding content (level 1), the cognitions they use to determine whether or not to take such actions (level 2) and the means by which they go about carrying out the action in the environment (level 3). Finally, the framework is applied to the problem of encouraging members to participate by discussing the methods by which people can be persuaded to participate by changing the way they interpret their desires and their environment.

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References

Jonathan Bishop (2007). Increasing participation in online communities: A framework for human-computer interaction. Computers in Human Behavior, 23(4), 1881-1893. Available online: http://resources.crocels.com/wp-content/uploads/sites/4/increasing-participation-in-online-communities-a-framework-for-human-computer-interaction.pdf.

The Psychology of how Christ created Faith and Social Change: Implications for the design of E-Learning Systems

The Psychology of how Christ created Faith and Social Change: Implications for the design of E-Learning Systems

Jonathan Bishop

Abstract

Social change in organic and virtual communities is achieved through actors experiencing desires to carry out an action and acting them out. Ecological cognition has explained how actors act in their environment through identifying five desires that an actor experiences in an environment. This paper investigates the existence of such desires in organic and virtual communities, through carrying out a case study of a popular virtual community and analysing the Scriptures and extends the model of ecological cognition to include five opposite desires. The paper identifies three sources of desires that lead to social change, which are through an actor perceiving affordances in artefacts, through picking up resonances from other actors and through picking out cognizances in their thoughts. The role of divine command in the origin of such desires is explored as is how actors deal with desires and how they validate them. Finally, guidelines for developers of virtual communities to take into account the existence of desires in developing these environments are provided.

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The Psychology of how Christ created Faith and Social Change: Implications for the design of E-Learning Sys…

Reference

Jonathan Bishop (2007). The Psychology of how Christ created Faith and Social Change: Implications for the design of E-Learning Systems. Paper presented to the Second International Conference on Faith, Spirituality and Social Change, University of Winchester, 14-15 April 2007. Available online at: http://www.jonathanbishop.com/Library/Documents/EN/docFSSC2007.pdf

Social change in organic and virtual communities: An exploratory study of Bishop Desires

Social change in organic and virtual communities: An exploratory study of Bishop Desires

Jonathan Bishop

Abstract

Social change in organic and virtual communities is achieved through actors experiencing desires to carry out an action and acting them out. Ecological cognition has explained how actors act in their environment through identifying five desires that an actor experiences in an environment. This paper investigates the existence of such desires in organic and virtual communities, through carrying out a case study of a popular virtual community and analysing the Scriptures and extends the model of ecological cognition to include five opposite desires. The paper identifies three sources of desires that lead to social change, which are through an actor perceiving affordances in artefacts, through picking up resonances from other actors and through picking out cognizances in their thoughts. The role of divine command in the origin of such desires is explored as is how actors deal with desires and how they validate them. Finally, guidelines for developers of virtual communities to take into account the existence of desires in developing these environments are provided.

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Social change in organic and virtual communities: An exploratory study of Bishop Desires

Reference

Jonathan Bishop (2006). Social change in organic and virtual communities: An exploratory study of Bishop Desires. Paper
presented to the Faith, Spirituality and Social Change Conference, University of Winchester, 8th April 2006. Available online at: http://www.jonathanbishop.com/Library/Documents/EN/docFSSC2006.pdf

Online Empathy

Online Empathy

Niki Lambropoulos

Abstract

This article by Crocels researcher Niki Lambropoulos discusses online empathy in general and the way trolls as “player characters” have low ‘faction.’

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References

Lambropoulos, N. (2013). Online Empathy. In: J. Bishop (Ed.) Examining the Concepts, Issues and Implications of Internet Trolling. IGI Global: Hershey, PA.

Paradise lost? Primary Empathy in Online Communities of Interest and Ways of Use

Paradise lost? Primary Empathy in Online Communities of Interest and Ways of Use

Niki Lambropoulos

Abstract

The objective of this paper is to investigate the role of empathy related to the matching of the feelings of the other person in online communities of interest, connected to contribution, self-organized learning by observation in social contexts, group building, social relationships, as well as the use in HCI. In addition, active empathic groups are suggested to have revolutionary effect for eDemocracy. We are presenting results from two studies, related to the process of non-contributors’ engagement and ways members could interfere in policies and changes of their environment with the help of software-based research.

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Paradise lost? Primary Empathy in Online Communities of Interest and Ways of Use by Jonathan Bishop

Reference

Lambropoulos, N. (2005). Paradise lost? Primary Empathy in Online Communities of Interest and Ways of Use. In the Proceedings of the 1st Conference on Online Communities and Social Computing, in the 11th International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction 2005, 22-27 July, Las Vegas, Nevada, USA. Published by Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc.

Sociability and Usability for Active Participation

Sociability and Usability for Active Participation

Niki Lambropoulos

Abstract

This paper presents the results from a study on issues for sociability and usability for legitimate peripheral participation in online communities. Informal learning is considered to occur within the individual in a self-organized way and within the community as consensus knowledge building. A catalogue for usability andsociability evaluation criteria was developed, in order to identify the twofold informal learning as well asconsensus knowledge building, to investigate sociability and usability supporting contribution and evaluate theevaluation criteria. Fourteen Greek teachers with a special interest in ICT in Education participated in the study.The findings identified and described mechanisms and strategies for legitimate peripheral participation withcontribution as the target as well supported the usability evaluation criteria for online communities

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Sociabilty and Usability for Active Participation by Jonathan Bishop

Reference

Lambropoulos, N. (2005). Sociabilty and Usability for Active Participation. Dasgupta, Subhasish (Ed.) (2005), Encyclopaedia of Virtual Communities and Technologies. Hershey, PA, USA: Idea Publishing, pp. 414-416. – See more at: http://intelligentq.net/nikilambropoulos/?page_id=5#sthash.KHdg8bxe.dpuf